Delhi Darbar




A restaurant is a commercial establishment committed to serve the food and the beverage.  A restaurant may be a licensed part of a hotel operation, whereby the sales of the restaurant contribute to the sales performance of the hotel as a whole. Restaurants may also be independent business entities under individual ownership and management.


Coffee Shop
A concept borrowed from the United States, distinguished by its quick service.  Food is pre-plate and the atmosphere informal. Table cover layouts are less elaborate and have basic essentials only.
Continental Restaurant
The atmosphere is more sophisticated and caters for people who can eat at leisure. The accent is on good continental food and elaborate service.
Specialty Restaurant
The entire atmosphere and décor are geared to a particular type of food or theme.  Thus restaurants, which offer Chinese, Japanese, Indian cuisine would be termed “SPECIALTY RESTAURANTS”.  The service is based more or less on the style of the country from which the particular cuisine originates.


There are some basic principles in Food & Beverage Service that a steward must know:

1. When food is served by the waiter at the table from a platter onto a guest plate, the service is done from the left.
2. When food is pre-plated the service to the guest is usually done from the right, though modern convention permits service from the left also.
3. All beverages are served from the right.
4. Soups are served from the right unless it is poured by a waiter from a large tureen into a soup cup in which case it is done from the left of the guest.
5. Ladies are always served first and the remaining guests clockwise. Soiled plates should always be cleared from the table from the right.
6. Empty Crockery and Fresh Cutlery are always served from the right. Never reach across a Customer. Hence, when a guest is present at the table, all items and equipment on the right of guest must be placed from the right and that on the left from the left.


ENGLISH SERVICE: Often referred to as the "Host Service" because the host plays an active role in the service. Food is brought on platters by the waiter and is shown to the host for approval. The waiter then places the platters on the tables. The host either portions the food into the guest plates directly or portions the food and allows the waiter to serve. For replenishment of guest food the waiter may then take the dishes around for guests to help themselves or be served by the waiter.

FRENCH SERVICES: It is a very personalized service. Food is brought from the kitchen in dishes and salvers, which are placed directly on the table. The plates are kept near the dish and the guests help themselves.

SILVER SERVICE: The table is set for hors d'oeuvres, soup, main courses and sweet dish in sterling silverware. The food is portioned into silver platters at the kitchen itself which are placed at the sideboard with burners or hot plates to keep the food warm in the restaurant. Plates are placed before the guest. The waiter then picks the platter from the hot plate and presents the dish to the host for approval. He serves each guest using a service spoon and fork. All food is presented in silver dishes with elaborate dressing.

AMERICAN SERVICE: The American service is a pre-plated service which means that the food is served into the guest's plate in the kitchen itself and brought to the guest. The portion is predetermined by the kitchen and the accompaniments served with the dish balance the entire presentation in terms of nutrition and color. This type of service is commonly used in a coffee shop where service is required to be fast.

RUSSIAN SERVICE: An elaborate silver service much on the lines of French service except that the food is portioned and carved by the waiter at the guerdon trolley in the restaurant in full view of the guests. Display and presentation are a major part of this service. The principle involved is to have whole joints, poultry, game and fish elaborately dressed and garnished, presented to guests and carved and portioned by the waiter.

GUERDONS SERVICE: This is a service where a dish comes partially prepared from the kitchen to be completed in the restaurant by the waiter or, when a complete meal is cooked at the table-side in the restaurant. The cooking is done on a guerdon trolley which is a mobile trolley with a gas cylinder and burners. The waiter plays a prominent part, as he is required to fillet, carve, flambé and prepare the food with showmanship. The waiter has to have considerable dexterity and skill. This is supposed to be most difficult service therefore.

BUFFET SERVICE: A self-service where food is displayed on tables in Chaffing Dishes . The guest takes his plate from a stack at the end of each table or requests the waiter behind the buffet table to serve him.

SIT DOWN SERVICE: For sit-down buffet service, tables are laid with crockery and cutlery as in a restaurant. The guest may serve himself at the buffet table and return to eat at the guest table laid out. The waiter may serve a few courses like the appetizer and soup at the table.

CAFETERIA SERVICE: This service exists normally in industrial canteens, colleges, hospitals or hotel cafeterias. To facilitate quick service, the menu is fixed and is displayed on large boards. The guest may have to buy coupons in advance, present them to the counter waiter who then serves the desired item. The food is served pre-plated and the cutlery is handed directly to the guest. Guests may then sit at tables and chairs provided by the establishment. Sometimes high tables are provided where guests can stand and eat.

COUNTER SERVICE: (Snack-bar Service) Tall stools are placed along a counter so that the guest may eat the food at the counter itself. In better establishments, the covers are laid out on the counter itself. Food is either displayed behind the counter for the guests to choose from, or is listed on a menu card or common black board.

GRILL ROOM SERVICE: In this form of service various meats are grilled in front of the guest. The meats may be displayed behind a glass partition or well decorated counter so that the guest can select his exact cut of meat. The food comes pre-plated.

ROOM SERVICE: It implies serving of food and beverage in guest rooms of hotels. Small orders are served in trays. Major meals are taken to the room on trolleys. The guest places his order with the room service order taker. The waiter receives the order and transmits the same to the kitchen. In the meanwhile he prepares his tray or trolley. He then goes to the cashier to have a Bill/ Voucher prepared to take along with the food order for the guest’s payment or signature. Usually clearance of soiled dishes from the room is done after half an hour or an hour. However, the guest can telephone Room Service for the clearance as and when he has finished with the meal.


1. CENTRALIZED: Here al the food orders are processed from the main kitchen and sent to the rooms by a common team of waiters.

2. DECENTRALIZED: Each floor or a set of floor may have separate pantries to service them. Orders are taken at a central point by order-takers who in turn convey the order to the respective pantry.                               

MOBILE PANTRY SERVICE: Some hotels have pantries installed in service elevators. Orders are received by a central point that convey it to the mobile pantry. The pantry has to just switch on the floor and give instant service. For the sake of information, in countries, which have a shortage of manpower, large hotels install mechanized dispensing units in rooms. The guest inserts the necessary value of coins into the machine, which will eject pre-prepared food and beverages for guest consumption.


There are basically two types of breakfast offered in hotels and restaurants. The Continental Breakfast and the English Breakfast. The Continental Breakfast originated in Europe. It is a light meal as the Europeans normally have a heavy mid-day meal. The English breakfast is heavy and is a major meal of the day. A traditional English breakfast runs into six or seven courses.


Consists of bread rolls or toast with jam, honey, or marmalade and rounded off with tea or coffee. Better hotels may serve brioches and croissants. The cover layout consists of :

(a) A side plate and a side knife
(b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate
(c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon
(d) A sugar pot with tongs
(e) A bread boat or toast rack
(f)  Serviette
(g) Jam, marmalade and honey pots

Note: There are variations to the Continental Breakfast. Cafe com- plate refers to Continental Breakfast with coffee (or tea) while cafe simple refers to just coffee or tea with nothing to eat.


Is more elaborate and offers a choice of juices (or fresh or stewed fruits), cereals, fish course, choice of eggs, meat course, toast with jam, marmalade or honey, and finally, tea or coffee. The cover consists of:

(a) A side plate and a side knife
(b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate
(c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon
(d) A sugar pot (a tongs, if there are sugar cubes)
(e) A cruet set
(/) A fish knife and fish fork
(g) Dinner knife and fork
(h) Jam, marmalade and honey
(i) Dessert spoon and fork
(j) Serviette


  • Chilled fruit juices : Orange, pineapple, tomato, grapefruit.
  • Stewed fruit : Prunes, pears, apples, figs.
  • Cereals: Porridge, cornflakes.
  • Fish: Grilled herring, fried sole.
  • Eggs: Poached, boiled, scrambled, fried, omelets
  • Meat: Sausages, bacon, salami, kidney, breakfast steak.
  • Breads: Toast, rolls, brioche, croissant, bread sucks.
  • Preserves: Jam, marmalade, honey.
  • Beverage: Tea, coffee, hot chocolate.
  • Eggs can be served with: grilled tomatoes, sautéed mushrooms, baked beans,
  • fried potatoes.



One of the technical terms very often used in the hospitality industry is a "cover". What does this mean? There are 2 definitions according to the context:                                                                    

1) When discussing how many guests a restaurant or dining room will seat or how many guests will be attending a certain cocktail party, we refer to the total number of guests concerned as so many "covers".

2) When laying a table in readiness for service there are a variety of place settings, which have to be laid according to the type of meal and service being offered. This place setting is a type of cover being laid. In other words a cover denotes all the necessary cutlery, flatware, crockery, glassware and linen necessary to a lay a certain type of place setting for a specific meal.


This cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for each course will be laid just before each course is served. The traditional cover given below represents the cover for hors d' oeuvres which is the first course in a classic menu sequence.

  • Fish plate
  • Serviette
  • Fish knife
  • Fish fork
  • Side plate
  • Side knife
  • Wine glass
When an A la Carte Cover is being laid, the cutlery and flatware required by the guest for the dishes ordered will be placed course by course. In other words there should not be at any time during the meal, more cutlery and flatware on the table than is required by the guest at that specific time.


This cover follows the principle that the cutlery and flatware for the entire meal will be laid before the first course is served. The traditional cover is given below:

  • Serviette
  • Soup spoon
  • Fish knife
  • Fish fork
  • Meat knife
  • Meat fork
  • Dessert spoon
  • Dessert fork
  • Side plate
  • Side knife
  • Wine glass

When a Table d’hôte cover has been laid, the steward should remove, after the order has been taken, any unnecessary cutlery and flatware and really any extra items that may be required.

After the above covers have been laid, the table-layout should be completed by the addition of the following items:

  • Cruet set
  • Ashtray
  • Bud vase

All applicable cutlery and flatware should be laid 1.25 cm from the edge of the table. Water goblets after polishing should be placed at the top right-hand of the cover.

DEFINITION: One cover denotes all the necessary cutlery, flatware, crockery, glassware and linen necessary to lay a certain type of place setting for a specific meal, for a single person.

Size Of One Cover = 18x24 Inches.



  • Ash Tray
  • Flower Vase
  • Cruet Set


  • Cheese Plate
  • Butter Knife/Side Knife
  • All Purpose Fork
  • All Purpose Spoon
  • All Purpose Knife
  • Dinner Napkin
  • Water Goblet
1. Round Table x 4 Covers 3 Feet in Diameter
2. Round Table (8 Covers) 5 Feet in Diameter
3. Rectangular Table (4 Covers) 4 Feet 6 Inches x 2 Feet 6 Inches.
4. Square Table (2 Covers) 2 Feet 6 Inches Square
5. Square Table (4 Covers) 3 Feet Square
1. Round Table x 4 Covers 54 Inches x 54 Inches
2. Square Table (2 Covers) 54 Inches x 54 Inches
3. Square Table (4 Covers) 72 Inches x 72 Inches
4. Rectangular Table (4 Covers) 72 Inches x 54 Inches
1. Dinner Napkin 18 Inches Square
2. Cocktail Napkin 06 Inches Square
Height Of Chair 18" from the Ground to Base & 39"
Height Of Table 02 Feet 6 Inches From Ground To Top
All Purpose (AP)Spoon 08 Inches
All Purpose (AP)Knife 10 Inches
All Purpose (AP)Fork 08 Inches


It is of paramount importance for any F & B professional to have a sound knowledge of the types of service styles mentioned above, irrespective of the fact whether you are with DELHI DARBAR or not. And yes, remember practice makes a man perfect – Dr. Das S. K. (President & CEO) .


Beer making dates back to ancient Egyptian times. There are five main types of beer: lager, stout, ale, porter and bock.

‘I must get out of these red clothes and into a dry vodka martini’ said Alexander Woolcott. Since the late 1940’s, vodka has been a great success worldwide. Russia and Poland, both lays claim to have given the world vodka.

The year was 1492. Christopher Columbus not only discovered a New World, but a wonderful new enjoyment that is delighting connoisseurs throughout the entire world.

The name gin comes from ‘Genievre’- the French for juniper. One characteristic which all gin shares is the presence of juniper berries. Gin is defined as a rectified spirit made from malted barley, rye or corn.

This is an in depth look at the glossary, literature on brands and percentages by volume of various spirits and liquors from around the world. This is simply meant to be a memory jogger for professional servers; a quick succinct source of practical authentic information.

Although connoisseurs of wines and spirit tend to frown upon liqueurs, they are favored as polite, attractive and digestive drinks with which we finish our meals. In the US, liqueurs are also known as cordials but are more popularly defined as flavored and sweetened spirits.
A spirit is a potable alcoholic beverage obtained from the distillation of a liquid containing alcohol. The history of distillation goes back over 400 years when it is said that stills were used in China to make perfumes and by the Arabs to make spirit based drinks. 
The Scots fought their wars on whisky. The first to make whisky were the Irish. Irish and Scottish settlers brought the art of making whisky to America when they made homes in Pennsylvania in the middle of the 17th century.
Wine is a part of every New World country where the climate allows the vine to prosper. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Mexico, the United States and Canada all have healthy wine industries, which strive to stand on their own merits.
Different types of Mocktails with ingredients, method, garnish and glass Information.

TAKING AN ORDER:                               
Order taking is a skilful art that reflects the efficiency of both the waiter and the establishment. An order taken down clearly and precisely would ensure that each guest guests exactly what he has ordered and in the right sequence.

An ancient philosopher from distant past said, as he left the image of tea posterity: “When I drink tea, I am conscious of peace, the cool breadth of heaven rises in my sleeves and blows.

In order to appreciate wine, it's essential to understand the characteristics different grapes offer and how those characteristics should be expressed in wines. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Zinfandel are all red grapes.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHEESES (For any Chef trying to venture into FUSION COOKING it’s must to know):

  • BLUE CHEESE (or  legally referred to as  Blue Vein in South Africa): A good Blue Cheese is ivory or cream coloured, firm and springy and rather fatty, with evenly distributed light or dark green-blue veins. The naturally found crust may be rough or smooth. Most distinguished are the French ewe’s- milk Roquefort. English Bleu Stilton and Italian Gorgonzola.
  • BRIE: A cow’s milk cheese with 45% fat content, originating in the IIede-France, which has a soft texture and a crust that is springy to the touch, covered in white down and tinted with red. It is made in the shape of a disc- the thinnest part of which is the most matured. The body of the cheese is light yellow or golden with a delicate flavor.
  • CAMEMBERT: A very famous French Cheese dating back to the 18th century- a soft cheese with 45-50% fat content, made from cow’s milk, pale yellow in colour with a white furry skin speckled with brown flecks. At the beginning of its ripening Camembert is crumbly but it gets softer and creamier over time, usually 2-3 weeks.
  • MASCARPONE: A soft, white fresh cream cheese from the Lombardy region of south Italy. It is made from cream separated from milk, accounting for its high fat content. This cream is heated, citric acid is added, and the curd is stirred. The clumps of curd are drained in cloth for 24 hrs, then the cheese is whipped and packed in tubes. Cheese are generally aged upto a year and develop a brittle, hard texture and a yellowish rind. Pecorino has a strong, salty flavor and is used in the same way as Parmesan. Younger cheese are softer and whiter.
  • PROVOLONE: This southern Italian cow’s milk cheese has a firm texture and a mild, smoky flavor. It ahs a golden brown rind and comes in various forms, through the squat pear shape is most recognizable. Most of them are aged for 2-3 months and has a pale-yellow colour. However some are aged 6 months to a year or more. As the cheese ripens, the colour becomes richer yellow and the flavor more pronounced.
  • RICOTTA: An Italian curd cheese made from whey produced as a by-product in the manufacture of various cow’s and ewe’s milk cheese. Soft and rindless, with a crumbly texture and a mild flavor, Ricotta is used mainly in cooking.
  • ROQUEFORT: A French ewe’s milk cheese with 45% fat content made in the Rouerge district. Only the milk of specially bred sheep is used, and is ripened in limestone caverns. The cheese is blueveined, smooth and creamy, with a naturally formed rind, and has a strong smell and a pronounced flavor. It is one of the oldest known cheeses.



Once  you have started out on a new restaurant venture, luring many customers isn’t too difficult, but in order to ensure that your business stays profitable, you have to strive for repeat customers. Which means, you have to make first time customers happy so they will come back and also tell others. It is here that Good Customer Service holds the key as it forms the essence and lifeblood of this Particular Industry, i.e. Gastronomy.


So it follows that Good Customer Service is the most important aspect of your restaurant business as well, perhaps even more important than the quality of food served. And in good customer service, the SMILE is the most important element. The essential attributes of cordiality, warmth and affability are all enshrined in the radiance of a SMILE. The SMILE sets precedent to smooth communication between you and your guest, allowing you to serve him better. Even the food they say, tastes better when conjured by hands of love and served with a SMILE. Even in a telephonic conversation, a SMILE should be mandatory for it reflects in the tone of voice. In this context, it is pertinent to mention that a phone call must be answered in not more than 4 rings. A prospective customer can then start to feel Welcome at the point of placing the reservation itself.

In the case of the restaurant business, customer service seldom rests in the hand of one or a few individuals. Every member of your staff forms a vital link in the chain that bolsters your effort to ensure cordiality and good customer service. From the person taking the reservation to the doormen to the receptionist in the lobby to the waiter at the table, the warmth and degree of geniality should be maintained. Never be curt in your replies and always be willing to take that extra step by offering alternatives such as another dish on the menu, should a guest’s choice be unavailable or out of season.

If telephone etiquette means that a phone should be answered promptly, the same protocol must be adopted while dealing with the customer in person. By all means, you should avoid making your guest wait too long for a table if he hasn’t made a reservation.


In the restaurant business as in any other, it is important to be a good listener. Right from the point of taking a reservation, Listening Skills have to Sharp. There is nothing more vexing than explaining to someone what you want or what your problem is, like allergic foods, and then discovering that that person hasn’t understood or paid attention and you have to explain it again? For this purpose, it may also be good to have staff that is multi-lingual.

By following these basic rules in maintaining Good Customer Service, you forge a relationship with your guests, a relationship that helps your business grow and prosper. Exceptional customer service keeps people coming back.


Is it time to hold a staff meeting at your restaurant? Do you want to learn how to get your employees to implement the goals of that meeting? Here are some tips for holding crew meetings that will stick with your staff, deliver desired results, and improve your service!

Some restaurants hold too many meetings. For the most part, holding too many meetings is nothing more than a big waste of time, and money!

Some restaurants don't ever hold staff meetings. This can result in poor communications between staff, a lack of direction, and can undermine goal setting! With a lack on focus, and no real priorities, you show a general lack of interest, and the staff will also do the same. A staff will work only to the standards you set. To set these standards, there needs to be communication on a regular basis.

Make a plan, and set goals for what you want to accomplish! Only conduct full staff meetings when there is a real need, and you have clear objectives.

For example: you want to set up a staff meeting to introduce your new menu. This is a critical need for a meeting. You can prepare the new menu items, and let the staff experience these new dishes. They will have the ability to taste, ask, critique, and gain the tools they need to convey this information to their guests. This will also allow your kitchen to get that important practice they need, to prepare these new menus items, so that on the roll out of your menu day, they will have the kinks worked out! Nothing gets a staffs attention more than free food, and the employee will likely retain the information you are trying to convey.

Make your staff meetings interactive! If your goal is to reduce food costs, play a game! Take the staff and split them into two teams. Ask a series of 50 questions all related to food costs and quality control. For instance, how much does one bottle of catsup cost the restaurant? How many croutons or cucumber go on a dinner salad? What does it cost the restaurant for a walk out? These questions will certainly throw them for a loop, and at the first meeting, most won't know the answers! However, the idea here is to make them aware of what things cost, that food cost is a priority, and that lowering food costs, is everyone's goal! It will also be fun, interactive, informative, and most of all memorable!

Remember always be training! Conduct daily staff meetings, or huddles, to reinforce communications on a regular basis. They should be very short, 2-3 minutes every day at the start of each shift. This will repeatedly express your standards in an ongoing manner, and will help establish consistency!

It is not what you say, it is really how you say it! Get your staff involved make them look forward to coming to your meetings! Encourage them to be active participants, and empowered stakeholders! I hope these easy tips will help you attain your goals faster and more efficiently, with a well trained, well informed staff, that will ultimately improve your service!

“it’s not what you look at, but what you see that sets apart, it’s the Power of Innovative Concept Selling that separates LEADERS from FOLLOWERS” – Dr. Das S. K. (President & CEO). For communication write to  

At DELHI DARBAR we have the following Do’s and Don’ts :

DO make all of your guests feel welcome. Greet them pleasantly and take the attitude that they are guests in your own home.

DO be attentive, alert, and cordial, but don't be too "FORWARD."

DO be courteous and cooperative at all times.

DO have a general knowledge of your community and the surrounding area.

DO know the telephone number of the Chamber of Commerce and the most direct route there. Refer questions you cannot answer to the Chamber of Commerce.

DO know where "Essential Services" can be located.

DO talk up local events.

DO smile and greet your customers cheerfully when you come to take their order.

DO know your menu thoroughly.

DO be prepared to talk intelligently with regard to casual information often requested by a customer.

DO double-check the customer's order, so he receives exactly what he ordered.

DO ask the customer when he wants his beverage.

DO use a deodorant, bathe daily.

DO make a point of giving excellent service - replenish ice water promptly, replace a soiled napkin with a fresh one, remove soiled dishes promptly, see that the ash trays are clean and within easy reach.

DO make sure wash rooms are clean and tidy.

DON'T use cheap perfume.

DON'T wash table tops with the same cloth used to wipe ash trays.

DON'T visit with fellow employees during service hours. Your customer comes first.

DON'T make substitutions until you have checked with the customer.

DON'T hurry your customer unnecessarily or show annoyance if he dawdles over his coffee.

DON'T keep customers waiting for the check. Bring it immediately, following dessert or coffee.

DON'T do anything which shows you desire a tip.

DON'T be surly or discourteous in any way.

DON'T allow diners to sit unnoticed. Greet them saying, "Will be with you in a moment." Provide a menu so they will know their presence has been noticed.

Dr. Das Suman Kumar
(President & CEO)
- India Roaming: +91 9311115901
- Global Roaming: +91 9899992477


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